Limenitis reducta ( Souther White Admiral, Blauschwarzer Eisvogel, Le Sylvain Azure)
Limenitis reducta, also called Souther White Admiral or Blauschwarzer Eisvogel is a nice . The first description was in 1901 by Staudinger. With a wingspan of 5.0 – 6.0 cm the Souther White Admiral is a small member of the family NYMPHALIDAE. The butterfly is dark brown or black with white spots and a white band. Furthermore the Souther White Admiral has a faint blue iridescence.
Photos for easy identification
The forewings are dark brown or black and have a faint blue iridescence. At the margin there is a chain of little white spots. There is a chain of big white spots, which is crossing the wing. There is one separate white spot at the wing leading edge and also at the pinion.
The underside is orange and brown. Nearly all white spots from upside are also there. Only the chain of white spots at the margin is change to a chain of black and orange spots.
The hind wings are dark brown or black and have a faint blue iridescence. The margin is ridged. At the margin there is a chain of black and white spots. There is a broad white band on the wing.
The underside is orange and brown. At the margin there is a chain of little black spots. The broad white band from upside is also there. Around the body there is a white and bluish area.
The body is whitish, but from upside it is black.
Sex differences: All white spots and the band from female are broader than the spots and bands from male.
The Southern White Admiral (Limenitis reducta ) is a nice butterfly of the Palaearctic ecozone (Europe and Asia). The distribution extend from Europe to Turkey and Iran. You can see the Southern White Admiral until 1000 m sea level.
The flight period of the Southern White Admiral is from May to September. There are two broods per year.
The first description of this butterfly was in 1901 by Staudinger. There is only one subspecies.
- Limenitis reducta herculeana [Stichel, 1908]
The caterpillar is green and has fife couples of thorny warts. The pupa has no silken girdl. This species overwinters as caterpillar.
The distribution of Southern White Admiral overlap with the distributions of the White Admiral (Limenitis camilla) and the Poplar Admiral (Limenitis populi).
The following differentiators are very useful to differ these similar species.
- The Poplar Admiral is bigger than the Southern White Admiral, has a chain of orange spots at the margin and has no blue iridescence.
- The White Admiral hasn´t one separate white spot at the wing leading edge, but two chains of little black spots on hinde wings underside.
Protection provisions / Red List
- CITES: (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora):
-no entry- (as at 23.06.2005)
- EU regulation on trading with species of wild Fauna and Flora
-no entry- (as at 19.08.2005)
- IUCN Red List of threatened species:
-no entry- (as at 2004) (see: www.redlist.org/)
- Red List of endangered species of Austria:
-highly endangered- (category 2)- (see: www.roteliste.at/)
- Regulation of the Viennese regional government:
-protected as imago- (see: www.wien.gv.at/recht/landesrecht-wien/rechtsvorschriften/html/l4800200.htm)
Similar and closely-related species
Neptis rivularis [Scopoli, 1763] (Trauerfalter, Hungarian Glider)
Limenitis reducta Staudinger 1901
Soutern Withe Admiral
Blauschwarzer Eisvogel, Zaunlilienfalter
Le Sylvain Azure
Ninfa de arroyos
Classification / Taxonomy / Family tree
- Kingdom: ANIMALIA
- Phylum: ARTHROPODA
- Class: INSECTA
- Order: LEPIDOPTERA
- Suborder: DITRYSIA
- Superfamily: PAPILIONOIDEA
- Family: NYMPHALIDAE
- Subfamilie: LIMENITIDINAE
- Tribe: LIMENITIDINI
- Genus: LIMENITIS
- Specific name: REDUCTA