Papilio alexanor (Southern Swallowtail, Südlicher Schwalbenschwanz)
Papilio alexanor, also called Southern Swallowtail or Südlicher Schwalbenschwanz is a very grand butterfly from . The first description was in 1800 by Esper. With a wingspan of 7.0 – 8.0 cm the Southern Swallowtail is a small member of the family PAPILIONIDAE. The butterfly is yellowish with typical black tiger-strips. Hind wings have long tails. Papilio alexanor has a small area of distribution and is rare.
Photos for easy identification
The forewings are yellowish and have a black margin. Next to margin there is a long, light powdered black band. Nearby the body is a little black area. Between these opposites there are three tiger-strips. The strip in the middle has a light-coloured core.
The underside is a copy of upside, but there are some differences. The strip in the middle has a blue core.
The hind wings are white or yellowish and have long tails in black. The margin is very ridged. There is a blue-black band going backwards. There is only one black tiger-strip and one short strip in the middle of the wing. In back there is a red eye with a blue eyeshadow. There is a dark zone around the body.
The underside is a copy of upside.
The body is striped in black and yellow.
Sex differences: None
The flight period of the Southern Swallowtail is from June to August.
The first description of this butterfly was in 1800 by Esper. There are some subspecies.
- Papilio alexanor destelensis [Nel & Chauliac, 1983]
- Papilio alexanor radighierii [Sala & Bollino, 1991]
- Papilio alexanor orientalis [Romanov, 1884]
- Papilio alexanor hazarajatica [Wyatt, 1961]
- Papilio alexanor judeus [Staudinger, 1893]
- Papilio alexanor voldemar [Kreuzberg, 1989]
The caterpillar is green or yellow with black strips and red spots. The pupa has a silken girdl. This species overwinters as pupa.
Protection provisions / Red List
- CITES: (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora):
-no entry- (as at 23.06.2005)
- EU regulation on trading with species of wild Fauna and Flora
-no entry- (as at 19.08.2005)
- IUCN Red List of threatened species:
-no entry- (as at 2004) (see: www.redlist.org/)
- Red List of endangered species of Austria:
-unrepresented- (see: www.roteliste.at/)
- Regulation of the Viennese regional government:
-unrepresented- (see: www.wien.gv.at/recht/landesrecht-wien/rechtsvorschriften/html/l4800200.htm)
Similar and closely-related species
Papilio alexanor Esper 1800
Southern Swallowtail, Baluchi Yellow Swallowtail
Südlicher Schwalbenschwanz, Alexanor Schwalbenschwanz
Classification / Taxonomy / Family tree
- Kingdom: ANIMALIA
- Phylum: ARTHROPODA
- Class: INSECTA
- Order: LEPIDOPTERA
- Suborder: DITRYSIA
- Superfamily: PAPILIONOIDEA
- Family: PAPILIONIDAE
- Subfamily: PAPILIONINAE
- Tribe: PAPILIONINI
- Genus: PAPILIO
- Specific name: ALEXANOR